The semi-desert zones are the kingdom of felines and gazelles, like the Eurasian lynx, the Pallas cat, the Indian gazelle, the Persian gazelle, and the Persian onager.
Some of the species are in danger of extinction, such as the Iranian cheetah, of which there are only 60 left. Other rare species that make up part of Iran's fauna include the Caspian snowcock, the Persian fallow deer, and some varieties of fish.
Iran is also home to many bird species, like for instance, the long-legged buzzard, the common kestrel, the royal eagle, the bearded vulture, the black-bellied sandgrouse that lives in the Steppes, and the Asian houbara bustard that lives in the desert.
The large forests and mountains are home to wild boar, bears, deer and ibex.
Despite this wealth of fauna, since the 1950s Iran has been confronted with many problems that are affecting the quality of the environment: air pollution, deforestation, desertification, water pollution, and a decrease in marshland due to droughts, among other things.