More often than not, restaurant bills include service so a tip is discretionary. However you should know that the overwhelming majority of Spaniards do not leave tips and if they do it would only be a few centimes change. They would very rarely dig into their pockets to find extra change unless of course the service was somehow extraordinary. In general staff are paid decently and so do not expect large gratuities. In bars again, it is not expected for you to leave anything, however you may well find a small pot at the bar in which you can drop a few coins of change in if you feel like it. In tourist areas these pots only seem to be put there to encourage tipsy holiday makers to show their generosity and you'll rarely see a Spaniard parting company with a few coins. In hotels it is expected that you give a little something to the porters, chambermaids and waiters. This will depend on the hotel, the amount of baggage you have and how much work you have left the chambermaid to do. 2? or 3? is a nice gesture for the chambermaid while a decent tip for the porter would be 5?. As for taxi drivers, the best thing to do is to simply round up the fare to the nearest euro, or if the driver has helped you (with your consent) with heavy baggage then you may want to give a few extra coins. Otherwise there is no need to add another 15% on to the total, specially if the price has already been agreed before starting the journey.
In Greece, there is no fast and ready rule in terms of percentages for tipping. Some restaurants will have service included in which case, unless the bill is particularly hefty, 2 or 3? should suffice, but is not at all compulsory. If service is not included then consider leaving around 10% or so of the bill total. Again, if you were really impressed by the service then feel free to leave more; it won't be turned down! Tipping in bars is not a practice the Greeks tend to go for so don't worry about leaving anything for your drinks. In hotels, if the porter has helped you with your bags, then 2 or 3? would be sufficient to keep him onside for the rest of your stay. Expect to give him a little extra though if you make use of his services throughout your stay, such as help in restaurant or taxi reservations. In Greece, taxi drivers are permitted to take several fares at once, so you are not expected to leave more than a few coins, perhaps totaling 0.50?. Some drivers will charge a minor flat fee per case which is a minor official charge and not a tip, so therefore cannot be negotiated.
In the United States, tipping is a part of everyday life and not doing so can be offensive and detrimental to the people who help you out. Most services you make use of will incur the extra cost of leaving something for the person who provides it. In restaurants, where the waiters are often paid less than $3 per hour, your tip will often have a bearing on their quality of life. There are quite standard practices in the States regarding tips and an additional 15-20% on top of the bill is now customary. You have to bear in mind that many waiters are required to 'tip out' which involves sharing their tips with bus boys, bar staff and kitchen staff. If you order wine, you should also consider tipping around 10% for it. If you eat in a more expensive restaurant, then there are two factors to consider. First is that you will probably have to up you tip above 20% (this rate also goes for large parties, say 6 or more). Second is that you will probably find that the restaurant has a maitre d' and is it worth your while slipping him at least $20 as he can make or break your evening. The amount should be higher if you are celebrating a special occasion and would like to be treated exceptionally, or again, if you are a large group. When at the bar, it is customary to give the barman/barwoman $1 per drink or a little more for cocktails or if they take especially good care of you. In hotels, porters usually pick up a fixed price per bag and this can change from hotel to hotel. Pretty much all services require tipping, except front desk, and here charges can range from 2-$10. If you are not sure, ask at the reception on what is the correct etiquette for a particular service. The list of different services that require tipping goes on, but as a rule if someone helps you out, they will probably expect something in return.
The country does not have a real tipping culture, however in some cases it is appreciated. In restaurants, bars and cafés, an additional 10-15% would be very much appreciated, especially as often waiters rely on gratuities to earn a decent crust. If you are simply having a coffee then leaving some small change is perfectly acceptable, whereas in fine dining establishments, you may want to leave slightly more than the 15% stated above. If tipping in pounds, euros or dollars, leaving coins is of little use to the waiters as they are unable to change them into Turkish lira. You must also be aware that in some places, leaving a tip is not expected and in some cases even illegal and doing so could cause great offence. Hotel porters expect some recognition for their services; 2-3TRY (1 TRY = £0.42) per bag would be acceptable. A few coins for the chambermaids wouldn't go amiss either. Taxi drivers to not expect tips, although rounding up to the nearest half TRY is appreciated.
There are really two different sides to tipping in Italy. On the one hand you have the Italians themselves who don't seem to consider giving gratuity a priority. They rarely leave extra in a restaurant, where in most cases a 'coperto' (cover charge) and 'servizio' (service charge) are added to the total bill, unless the service has been outstanding, but even then, the waiters would not necessarily expect to be handed a little something on the side. The Italians drink far too much coffee to leave even a few extra 'centesimi' every time and so always pick up their change. In the larger 4-5* hotels, they would tend to give a small something to the porter for having brought them their cases, maybe more if they want to be looked after well for the duration of their stay. Smaller hotels probably won't have a porter. Taxi drivers will very rarely receive a tip as journeys are fairly expensive; most Italians wouldn't even round up to the nearest round figure. On the other hand you have the tourists who do seem to tip a little more than the locals. Even if a restaurant bill includes service and cover charges, it's a nice gesture to leave a few coins, perhaps 2-3?, to show your appreciation of having received competent service. For a coffee, unless you consume as much as the average Italian, you may want to leave your change seeing as coffee is not very pricey in most parts of Italy. For porters, where there is one, 5? would be a very generous gift and you may also want to leave a little for the chambermaid too, who may refuse out of politeness the first few times of asking, but who will happily take what you give to supplement her income. While taxi drivers don't expect a tip, if they have helped with heavy bags and have been polite and chatty, rounding up the fare would be a nice gesture. It all depends on whether you want to act like the locals or not.
On a different scale, Egypt is similar to the States in that if you receive a service you are usually expected to reward the person who provides it. However, you must bear in mind that although as a Westerner travelling in Egypt you are perceived as rich, this doesn't mean that you should give proportionally more than you would elsewhere. Having said this, it's not worth, or even right, to argue over what to you as a 'wealthy' traveller equates to a few pence. In restaurants, around 10% would be expected unless the service was not up to scratch and in bars there is no custom to tip the server unless they especially look after you in which case a few EGP (1 Egyptian pound is worth about 12 and a half pence) would be a nice touch. For hotels, 5EGP would be a pretty generous tip to give a porter if he has carried heavy luggage for you and 10EGP, which he would be over the moon with, should guarantee that you are looked after during your stay. Chambermaids don't expect any extra, although as they are on low incomes, giving a few EGPs would ensure you come back to a spotless room every night. Taxi drivers don't expect a tip as the fare is more often than not agreed before you embark on your journey and you should stick to this unless the driver has done something above and beyond the call of duty. If you want to tip your guide on a Nile cruise, you should check the company's policy before leaving as this varies. Another place where you will be expected to tip is at the WC. To be sure to get enough toilet paper and a clean toilet, 2EGP will be necessary. You will come across many people on your travels who try to impose their services upon you. In many cases they will do a good job, however tipping them is very much a matter for you. If you have asked specifically for the service they are providing then of course you will be expected to reward them, however again, bear in mind the exchange rate and don't give so much that what they receive becomes a precedent as not everyone will want the service or tip as much.
10% seems to be the magic number in Cyprus. Almost all restaurant bills will include a 10% service charge and you are not at all obliged to leave anything extra. If you feel that you would like to leave something extra then 2-3? would be a nice gesture. In bars and cafés there is no need to tip at all. For handling your luggage porters will expect a few euros, but nothing more than 5? unless they have been exceptional or you will be requiring the close attention throughout your stay. Likewise, chambermaids would appreciate 1-2? for keeping your room in good nick. If taking a taxi, the driver will not expect a tip but rounding up to the nearest euro won't go unthanked. You may find that tips are expected at some WCs, but there is no need to leave more than 1? in this circumstance.
Tipping etiquette in Mexico is very similar to that in the States as most visitors to the Central American country come from across the northern border. At restaurants, even if the service and cover charges have been added, 10-15% is the norm depending on the quality of the establishment. If you have an all-inclusive deal, it is still expected that you leave perhaps up to 10% if you were pleased with the service. Just like in the States, about $1 (or about 15MXN) per drink is the standard rate, or 10% of the total bill if you choose to leave gratuity at the end of your evening. Beware though of some bars adding on their own tips to the bill; in this instance, you should probably not leave anything. In hotels, you are expected to slide the porters 15-30MXN per bag that they carry for you and a few dollars each time you ask the concierge to do a favour on your behalf, such as call a taxi or reserve a table at a restaurant. Remember that if you tip in USD, try and give staff notes and not coins as it is difficult for them to change this into local currency. For chambermaids, leave at least 15MXN per day or something at the end of your stay. It is best however tip daily as the maid well be off on the day of your departure from the hotel. As in other destinations, if you have agreed the price of a taxi journey before setting off, you are not obliged to leave anything as the driver has almost certainly factored a gratuity into the fare. If, however, he or she offers extra services such as waiting for you to get cash, or stops off for you to take photos, then a few pesos would be a fair reward. Round the fare up to the nearest 10 pesos if the price has not been agreed beforehand. You will find, again, as in America, that there are many people in different service sectors who will expect a tip for services rendered. This could be at the petrol station (5-10% of cost of fuel), car park (2-3 pesos) or toilets (5 or so pesos). If you are unsure about how much to tip for different services then ask at your hotel. It is important, as in Egypt not to think about how much you are giving in terms of pounds sterling, but in terms of what it is worth to the person you are giving it to.
Tipping in France is fairly straightforward. Whenever you eat out, have a coffee or go for drinks, you will see at the foot of the bill that a 15% service charge has been included, so you are not obliged to leave anything at all. The French themselves however do tend to leave perhaps a couple of euros tip at the end of a meal, if the service was acceptable. Likewise, when taking coffee, they will either round up to the nearest half euro, or leave 10-20 centimes on the small tray presented by the waiter. The same goes for a couple of beers or glasses of wine. In all three cases though, walking away without having left a gratuity would not cause offence. You must remember that for many of France's waiters/waitresses and barmen/barwomen, this is their career and not just a casual job and so they are fairly well paid and take pride in their work and are not looking to be rewarded for good service as to them it is to be expected. If you go to a first-class restaurant where you would like to be looked after, then slipping the maitre d' something small would help and likewise, if your particular circumstances require the staff to act above and beyond their duty, it is a nice gesture to leave more than suggested above. In hotels where there is a porter then 1? per bag should suffice, more if your luggage is particularly cumbersome or you will be counting on their looking after you throughout your stay. A few euros to the concierge every time they do you a favour is also a pleasant gesture. It is not customary to tip the chambermaids in France although doing so would be welcomed. Taxi drivers do not expect tips. Feel free to round up to the nearest euro if they have been pleasant, or a little more if they have been patient with you after having requested several detours or stop offs. There are not many other circumstances in France where tipping is customary. You may be asked to give something in public toilets, although a fixed fee usually applies.
Last but not least we have Portugal which again is not too perplexing. Whether or not there is a service charge added to the bill, 5-10% is the expected level of gratuity from tourists. There is rarely need to leave more than this. Many Portuguese themselves don't tip at all so whatever you leave will be seen as a bonus and a generous touch. Rounding up to the nearest half euro or leaving a bit of loose change will be fine for gratuity after a couple of coffees or beers. The same goes for taxi rides unless the driver has been particularly helpful, in which case you can leave up to 10% of the fare, but no more as they don't often expect as much. In hotels, giving 1? for each bag that the porter takes to your room is perfectly acceptable as is offering a couple of euros for anything the concierge might arrange for you such as taxis or restaurant reservations. Leaving some small change for the chambermaids is also a nice gesture, but not at all obligatory.