English is the official language, and is spoken by the majority of the population. Each minority speaks its own dialect, and the Indians speak more than a dozen. French, although very different to French from France, is spoken in Quebec, where the two national languages are French and English.
The flight duration is approximately 11 hours and 15 minutes.
A flight to Quebec will take about 15 hours and 20 minutes.
There are two international airports in Alberta, one in Edmonton and one in Calgary. Air Canada and Air Transat operate direct flights to Edmonton International from several London airports. Air Canada, Air Transat, British Airways and WestJet operate direct flights to Calgary International from several London airports, with Air Transat also offering direct flights to the airport from Glasgow International.
The flight time is around 10 hours.
The journey takes approximately 11 hours if the flight is direct. Vancouver is 4,720 miles from London.
The journey takes around 18 hours from London to Newfoundland (with stopovers).
It takes approximately 12 hours to fly to Yukon, excluding stopovers. Air Canada and Lufthansa operate flights from London to Vancouver then from Vancouver to Whitehorse, the capital of the province.
It takes approximately 12 hours to fly from London to Fredericton, the capital of the province, including stopovers.
It takes around 11 hours to fly direct to Manitoba.
There are several airlines that operate flights from London to Saskatchewan. United Airlines has connecting flights in Chicago and Denver; Air Canada flies via Toronto; Air France has connecting flights in Minneapolis and Amsterdam; and Lufthansa flights connect in Frankfurt and Calgary. Flight times vary between 15 and 30h from London to the province's capital, Regina, usually with two connections.
The average flight time is about 22h 30m including stopovers, which are usually in Montreal, Halifax or Toronto. There are no direct flights from London.
Air Canada and Westjet operate flights to Prince Edward Island.
When travelling to the Northwest Territories, you are advised to first fly to Edmonton or Calgary, in Alberta, which takes between 9 and 10 hours from London. Air Canada and United Airlines operate several flights a week to Yellowknife from these airports. This second flight takes around 1h 30m.
When flying to Nunavut from the UK, travellers are advised to first fly to Ottawa, which takes around nine hours. Once you've reached the Canadian capital, you then have to take a three-hour connecting flight to Nunavut. A number of Canadian airlines fly to the territory, including Canadian North and Air Nunavut.
Direct flights from London to Halifax or Sydney take approximately 6h. Flights with stopovers can take around 20h. Air Canada is the main company serving Nova Scotia and offers direct flights from London Heathrow to Halifax. Other companies like Canadian Affair, Condor and Icelandair offer low-cost flights.
Required travel documents for Canada
For European citizens, a valid passport is needed to enter Canada. European tourists do not need a visa for stays shorter than six months. Otherwise the travellers are asked to leave the territory. It is possible to obtain a work or student visa at one of Canada's immigration centres.
The Protestant religion is dominant (around
46%) in the two provinces, headed up by the United and Anglican churches. The Catholics follow (around 36%), with an overwhelming majority of Roman Catholics.
Canadian Dollar (CAD)
The bus companies cover the two provinces and inspite of being quite slow, they are the least expensive means of transport. Due to Canada's low petrol prices car rental is not very expensive and allows for greater freedom.To hire a car, you need to be at least 21 and have held a licence for at least a year. Some car rental companies also impose a daily flat-rate supplement and a collision excess of $500 for drivers aged 21 to 25... You are advised to have a credit card if you do not wish to leave large sums of money as a security deposit. An international licence is not compulsory, however, it is often required by companies in the Anglo-Saxon provinces. The highway code is similar to Europe; the driving is on the right (60m/h maxi on a motorway, and 30m/h in town). Note that you can go right at the red light in all states apart from in Quebec.
You can also hire camping-cars. Although more expensive, they allow you to save money on accommodation. The train is comfortable for long distances, but quite expensive. The 'Canadian' train, which connects Toronto to Vancouver in three days, is another way of discovering the country. For those with bigger budgets it is possible to fly there: all the large cities have an airport served by Air Canada and Canadian. Hitch-hiking is very popular with backpackers, and hitch-hiking enthusiasts. This is very common except on the motorways, where it is forbidden. In Canada, this means of transport is even organised by the Allo-stop association, which puts drivers and passengers in contact with each other. Cycling is a very popular way of getting around all over the country. Various cycling tracks have been introduced, including in large cities.
No vaccinations are required. To get medical expenses reimbursed, personal medical insurance is necessary. Mosquitoes are a real hassle; plan to bring protection and prevention care against mosquito bites.
110 V American standard outlets, flat plugs. Bring an adaptor.
Canada : Useful addresses in the country
Marked prices usually do not include taxes. For most goods and services, you must add 7% for the federal tax and between 7 and 8% for the province tax. Some exceptions include books and food. Under certain conditions and in certain cases, foreigners can be reimbursed for those taxes. Brochures concerning this topic are available at the customs office in airports and in tourist offices. Concerning restaurants, taxis and cloakrooms, service is rarely included in the price and so it is thus recommended to add 15%, for fear of being subjected to a few remarks!
Canadian Tourist Office
P.O. Box 170, Ashford, London TN24 0ZX. Tel: 0870 161 5151 (trade only) or 0906 871 5000 (60p/min). Fax: 0870 165 5665
Embassy & High Commission of Canada
Immigration & Visa section: MacDonald House, 38 Grosvenor Street, London W1K 4AA. Tel: 020 7258 6500. Fax: 020 7258 6506
On the spot
80 Elgin Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5K7
Tel.: 613 237 1530 (8.30am-5pm) Fax: 613 237 7980
Tourist information centre
90 Wellington street, in Ottawa (Ontario). Tel.: (613) 239 5000 or 800 465 1867.
207 Queen's Quay Terminal, suite 509, in Toronto (Ontario) M5J1A7. Tel.: (416) 203 2500 or 800 363 1990.
320-25 Forks Market Road, in Winnipeg (Manitoba).
Tel.: (204) 943 1970 or 800 665 0204.