Naguib Mahfouz's novels (Old Egypt, Love above the Pyramid Plateau
Pyramid Plateau and Adrift on the Nile)
Egypt (Lonely Planet Country Guides) by M Firestone (2010)
Travel Egypt Nile Cruise by J Wood and M Wood (2006)
The Rough Guide to Egypt by D Richardson (2007)
DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Egypt by Collectif (2009)
Oum Kalsoum (30s diva), Farid El Atrach (40s singer) and Abdel Halim Hafez.
Al-Tuni Ahmad Sheikh
El Masry Hussein
Ali Hassan Kuban
Egyptian Pharaohs: 30 Pharaoh dynasties succeeded one another over 3,000 years
2700-2180 BC: The Old Kingdom. The construction of the Sphinx, the Djoser Step Pyramid (built on the Saqqara plateau) and the pyramids of Kheops, Khafra and Menkaura
2180-2060 BC: First Intermediate Period, misery and anarchy
2060-1785 BC: Middle Kingdom. Prosperity after reunification of the country
1785-1580 BC: Second Intermediate Period. The Hyksos invasion, political disorder
1580-1085 BC: The New Kingdom. A prosperous perion, it was the era of the reign of Hatshepsut (the Temple of Deir el-Bahri), of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II (Temple of Luxor, Colossi of Memnon), Akhenaten, Tutankhamun,Seti I, Ramesses II (Temple of Abu Simbel and Ramesseum) and Ramesses III
1085-333 BC: The kingdom fell into the hands of the Ethiopians and then the Persians, Egypt under domination
333-30 BC: Conquest by Alexander the Great. The founding of the city of Alexandria and the end of the Egyptian Pharaoh Dynasties
30 BC-395 AD: Egypt was a province of Ancient Rome. It was then ruled by the Byzantine (4th to 7th century AD), the Arabs (7th to 13th century AD), the Mamluk (13th to 16th century AD) and the Ottoman (16th to 19th century AD)
From 1798 to 1801: Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt
1879: The kingdom of Egypt came under English protectorate
1922: the British granted Egypt its independence
July 1952: Faruk, the last king of Egypt was abdicated
1953: A Republic was proclaimed. Nasser became president in 1954 and was the first Egyptian in power since the Pharaohs. His politics were socialist, pan-Arabic and nationalist
June 1967: The Six-Day War against Israel
In October 1973: Yom Kippur War (also, the Ramadan War or October War) against Israel
1971: Anouar al-Sadate was elected President of the Republic
In 1979: Peace treaty signed with Israel that left the Sinaļ in 1982
1981: Sadate was assassinated by a Muslim extremist. The Socialist Hosni Moubarack succeeded him
1990 Egypt sided with the USA, Syria and Israel against Iraq that invaded Kuwait
1992: Violent race riots between radical Muslims and the Copts (Crhistian Egyptians) closed Middle Egypt to tourists. Now, cruises on the Nile start from Luxor
2003: The Egyptian Movement for Change, or Kefaya, was instigated to challenge Mubarak's regime and campaign for greater civil freedom and democratic reform
2011: Widespread protests and civil unrest developed in opposition to Mubarak's government. In February, following Mubarak's resignation , the Constitution and Parliament in Egypt were dissolved. Elections were held on 28th November.
1st January: New Year.
7th January: Christmas (Copt).
19th January: Epiphany (Copt).
January: Eid al-Adha. Sheep sacrifice.
February: Muslim New year
21st March: Annunciation (Copt).
March or April: Easter (Copt).
April: Mouled en-Nabi. Celebration of the birth of the Prophet.
25th April: Restitution of the Sinaļ.
1st May: Labour Day.
18th June: Declaration of the Republic.
23rd July: Day of the 1952 Revolution
August: Wafa'a el Nil (Celebration of the Nile and its flood).
11th September: Copt New Year.
6th October: Armed Forces Day.
6th October: National Day.
24th October: Suez Victory.
November: Eid ul-Fitr.
23rd December: Victory Day
Muslim events and holidays vary from one year to the next.