Culture Central India

  • Central India, India
    Konstantin Labunskiy / 123rf
Amy Adejokun
Amy Adejokun Expert destination India

Central India : Discover the country's culture

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Guides


2004.




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Music

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Several collections of CDs by Ravi Shankar, musician from sitar, reedition Emi.

"Chants Of India", by Ravi Shankar.
"Inde, Gloire Et Splendeur", de Kiran Murti.
"Roots And Wings", by Sheila Chandra.

Central India : Discover the country's history

Historical dates

1500 BC Indo-Aryans invade the region and implement Hinduism and the principle of castes.
563-483 B.C., life of Buddha..
273-236 B.C., reign of Ashoka, big indian emperor. India's golden age.
1192, occupation of a large area of India by Muslims.
1288-1293, Marco Polo travels across India.
1526, founding of the Moghul Empire with Delhi as capital.
1631, building of the Taj Mahal.
17th and 18th centuries, increasing presence of Europeans.
1742, the French arrive in Pondicherry.
1876, Queen Victoria is crowned Empress of India.
1906, creation of the Muslim League.
1911, the capital of the British Empire is moved from Calcutta to New Delhi.
1920, Gandhi launches the non-cooperation movement and in 1930, civil disobedience.
15 August 1947, India gains independence and is divided into two States, the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
1948, assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
1950, India becomes a federal and lay democratic republic, member of the Commonwealth.
1964, death of Nehru.
1964-65, second Indo-Pakistani war.
1966-77, government of Indira Gandhi, daughter of Nehru.
1971, third Indo-pakistani war and independence of Bangladesh.
1975-77, state of emergency is declared by Indira Gandhi.
1984, assassination of Indira Gandhi by her bodyguards, Sikh extremists. Victory at legislative elections by party of Rajiv Gandhi, son of Indira Ghandi.
1987-1989, Indian intervention at Sri Lanka.
1991, assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.
1993, confrontation and attacks in the Bombay region.
1997, an untouchable, KR Narayanan, became leader of India.
Since 1998, clashes at the Indo-Pakistani borders. Escalation of nuclear tests between both countries.
1998, the BJP, Hinduist nationalist party took over power
1999, political comeback of the "Nehru-Ghandi lineage".
July 2002, Abdul Kalam was elected President.
August 2002, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat became Vice-President.
22 mai 2004: Major elections: Manmohan Singh of the Congress Party becomes prime minister. Sonia Gandhi is elected but stands down.

Central India : Stay up to date on the country's holidays and events

Events

January 1:
New Year's Day.
January 26:
Republic Day.
August 15:
Indian Independence Anniversary.
October 2:
Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi.
December 25:
Christmas.
Using a Lunar Calendar, the dates of Indian local and national festivals vary from year to year.
January.
January 13:
Lohri or Makar Sankranti festival, celebrated throught the entire of Jammu with fires, dances and decoration.
Vasanta Panchami, festival of spring dedicated to the goddess of Knowledge. In the north, kite festival.
February-March.
Purmandal Festival (mela) in Shivaist temples.
Mahashivaratri, day dedicated to Shiva with processions and singing.
Holi, popular and exuberant feast mostly in the north, an occasion to throw water and coloured powders onto passers-by.
March-April.
Chaitri Chaudash, in Uttar Baihni, near Jammu.
Bahu festival, in Bahu fort's Kali temple, in Jammu (als in October-November).
Ramanavami, celebrating the birth of Rama. Dances.
Celebration of Baisakhi marking the end of winter and the,, beginning of the monsoon season.
Holy Friday, Christian feast also celebrated in India.
May-June.
Buddha Jayanti, celebrates the birth, rebirth and entrance to Buddha's nirvana.
July-August.
Pilgrimage to Amarnath's grotto.
Naga Panchami, feast dedicated to the snake Ananta (bringing offerings).
Raksha Bandhan (Narial Purnima), feast of the coconut marking the end of the monsoon.
Ganesh Chaturti, festival in honour of Ganesh, very popular god with an elephant head.
August-September.
Janm Ashthami, birthday of Krishna, a public holiday.
September-October.
Dussehra, the most popular festival at the end of the monsoon period.
October-November.
Diwali, the liveliest feast with fireworks and illuminated neighbourhoods.
Govardhana Puja, festival dedicated to the sacred cow.
November-December.
Birthday of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikh religion.
Ladakh festivals are set according to the Tibetan Lunar Calendar.
September.
Ladakh festival during the first two weeks in September. Dance performances, sports and traditional outfits, especially in Leh, the main city. In Deskit and Sumur in the Nubra valley, organisation of camel races, "war" shows and ceremonies of traditional weddings.
From November to March.
Celebation of many festivals in Spituk, Stok, Thiksey, Chemrey and Matho.
Second half of February.
The New Year's Festivals of the "scapegoat" of Likir and Deskit (Nubra valley) coincide with the one in Dosmoche with many ceremonies and rituals. Losar festival takes place between December 8th and 30th.
Muslims festivals vary, around 11 days earlier each year.
For 2004:
February 2: Eid-ul-Adha.
2 March: Ashura.
2 May: Birthday of the Prophet.
12 September: Ascension of Mohamed.
November 14: Eid-ul-Fitr, end of Ramadan.

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