Between Punjab and Haryana is a vast alluvial plain with very fertile and sometimes sandy soil. Irrigation was developed by the English in the 19th century during the colonial period. Today, 90% of Haryana's surface area and 85% of Punjab's area are cultivated and, in each State, 70% of the population live in rural areas. The region thus became the Indian Union's breadbasket.
This part of northwestern India is often mentioned for its culture, which is full of joy and colours. Despite the ongoing turbulent history of the region of Punjab and Haryana, mostly due to its conflicting relationship with Pakistan, the culture here is very rich and diverse.
The culture is reflected in various art forms, from traditional music and dance to the applied arts and textiles. The inhabitants of Punjab include Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs, who have all contributed to the emergence of a a fairly unique but composite culture.
We highly recommend that you visit the Golden Temple of Amritsar, a spiritual Sikh village; and Rock Garden, a 'visionary environment' founded by Nek Chang and located in Chandigarh.
Chandigarh will definitely delight students of architecture. The city was designed by French architect Le Corbusier in 1951 upon the request of Indian Prime Minister, Nehrû. When visiting it you can see that it was designed following a grid pattern, meaning that despite a very sophisticated road system and well-maintained gardens, Chandigarh is just one vast network of perpendicular streets.
The Rock Garden is an open-air, completely unique museum that was created by architect Nek Chand. Recycled earthenware and ceramics were used to create an army of characters standing all over the park.
In Punjab there is ONE thing you absolutely must see: the Golden Temple of Amritsar. A magical spot, don't miss out on seeing this historical and religious monument during your trip to the region. There are a few mosques and temples that are also worth visiting.