'Secret Mali' by Stéfano Faravelli
The dawn of our time: appearance of the first towns.
From the 4th Century A.D. to the late 11th Century: Ghana Empire (also referred to as Wagadou).
From the 11th Century to the end of the 14th Century: Mali Empire (the Mandé region). This was federated in the 13th Century by Sundjata Keyita and reached its peak in the 14th Century under the reign of Kankou Moussa.
15th Century: founding of the Songhai Empire by Sunni Ali Ber.
Late 15th Century: reached its peak under Askia Mohamed
1591: fall of the last of Mali's empires at the Battle of Tondibi against the Moroccans over the gold in the region.
16th Century: the empires are divided into small kingdoms.
Late 17th Century to 19th Century: Bambara kingdom in Ségou which collapses as a result of conflict with the Massina Empire and El Hadj Umar Tall's Toucouleur Empire.
1898 : Mali becomes French Sudan.
22nd September 1960: independence is declared and the country reverts back to the name 'Mali'.
Dictatorship until 1991, when democracy is restored in Mali. Alpha Oumar Konaré is elected President of the Republic (two terms), followed by Amadou Toumani Touré (re-elected in 2007).
End of October: 3rd edition of the international Cauri festival in Siby, in the Mandé region
Early November 2009: 6th edition of the Triangle du Balafon festival in Sikasso
4th edition of the Dogon mask festival in Bandiagara
7th-9th January: 10th edition of the Festival in the Desert in Essakane, in the Timbuktu region
21st-24th January: 7th edition of the Gouina festival in the Kayes region
End of January:
3rd edition of the Voices of Bamako festival
8th edition of the Tamadacht festival in Andéramboukane, in the Gao region
10th edition of the Songhoi international arts and culture festival in Gao
7th edition of the International Percussion Festival in Bamako
3rd-7th February: 6th edition of the Festival on the Niger in Ségou
Mid-February: 6th edition of the Kayes festival in Médine and Tamba
5th-7th March: 14th edition of the mask and puppet festival in Markala, in the Ségou region