Culture Baja California

  • Baja California, Mexico, Baja California, Mexico
    © iStockphoto.com / Stellalevi
  • Baja California, Mexico
    © Sorin Colac / 123 RF
Amy Adejokun
Amy Adejokun Expert destination Mexico

Baja California : Discover the country's culture

Guides

Mexico: Lonely Planet Guide.

Music

The works of female composer Consuelito Velazquez ('Besame mucho').
Javier Solis (mariachis).
Josť Alfredo Jimenez (mariachis).
Luis Miguel (pop).
Mana (pop).

Baja California : Discover the country's history

Historical dates

30,000 years BC: human presence on Mexican land.
5,000 years BC: first corn and bean cultivation.
2,500 / 1,500 BC: the appearance of pottery and the end of the archaic period.
1,500 / 600 BC: the Olmec civilisation was the first great Meso-American civilisation.
2nd-8th century: Teotihuacan civilisation.
3rd-10th century: Maya civilisation in the south of Mexico and Guatemala.
15th century: Aztec empire domination.
1519: Cortez touches ground in Veracuz. Beginning of Spanish conquest.
1521: Tenochtitlan is seized, end of the Aztec empire.
1810: beginning of the war for independence.
1821: proclamation of independence by Agustin de Iturbide.
1833-1855: dictatorship of General Santa Anna. Loss of Texas, California and Arizona.
1864: conquest of Mexico by Napoleon III. Reign of archduke Maximilien de Habsbourg, before he was executed in 1867.
1872-1911: dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, beginning of industrialization.
1911-1923: Mexican revolution: 1 million people die.
1919: Assassination of Emiliano Zapata.
1923: assassination of Pancho Villa.
1926-1934: dictatorship of General Plutarco Elias Calles.
1926-1929: the 'cristeros' rebellion: the civil war between seculars and fanatic Christians ends with tens of thousands of people dead.
1934: Lazaro Cardenas is elected president. The country regains stability.
1968: Olympic Games in Mexico City. Students' demonstrations, massacre of Three-Culture square.
1981-1987: oil crisis, economic recession.
1985: earthquake in Mexico, 20,000 dead.
1994: Zapatista Indian uprising. Ernesto Zedillo is elected president.
2000: presidential elections. After more than 70 years of unshared power, the IRP, Institutional Revolutionary Party, is beaten by the opposition candidate of the PAN (centre-right wing), Vincent Fox.
2006: victory of conservative Felipe Calderon for president.

Baja California : Stay up to date on the country's holidays and events

Events

Mexico is a pious country and eminently festive. The religious calendar is laden with popular festivals and highly colourful processions.
1st January:
New Year's Day.
6th January:
Dias de los Reyes (Twelfth night).
2nd February:
Constitution Day.
February/March:
Carnivals of Vera Cruz and Merida.
April:
Palm Sunday, Holy Week and Easter, the most important celebration in Mexico.
1st May:
Labour Day.
May:
Cancun jazz festival (variable dates).
3rd May:
Dia de la Santa Cruz (day of the Holy Cross).
5th May:
Cinco de Mayo. Anniversary of the victory of Puebla over the French.
24th June:
St John the Baptist celebrations.
1st September:
Informe Presidencial (the president's annual speech to Congress). Bank holiday.
15-16th September:
Independence Days.
1st-2nd November:
Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead/All Saints).
20th November:
Revolution Day.
12th December:
Celebrations for the Virgin of Guadelupe, patron saint of Mexico.
16-24th December:
Posadas, commemorations of the journey to Bethlehem.
25th December:
Navidad (Christmas Day).

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