- Shame by S. Rushdie.
- Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet.
14th August 1947, creation of Pakistan, an Islamic republic with Ali Jinnah for President. The country was divided into two distinctive regions: western Pakistan and eastern Pakistan. In a climate of violence and massacre, some 6 million Hindus and Sikhs fled Pakistan for India, whereas 8 million Muslims did the opposite. At the same time the war in Kashmir broke out.
1949, the end of the war marked the division of Kashmir: Azad Kashmir and the northern territories are Pakistani, whereas Jammu and Kashmir belonged to India.
1958, General Ayyub Khan came into power. He governed the country with an iron hand for ten years.
1965, second Indo-Pakistani conflict in Kashmir.
1971, eastern Pakistan, supported by India, seceded and became Bangladesh.
1972, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took power and attempted to reorganise of the country. But his reforms drew hostile reactions from landlords and religious figures.
1977, Ali Bhutto was overthrown by a military coup d'etat, then hanged in 1979. General Zia ul-Haq became President and introduced the Shariah code.
1980, the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan caused the exodus of millions of Afghan refugees. The United States offered military and economical support.
1988, electoral victory for Benazir Bhutto's party, Ali Bhutto's daughter, who became head of government.
1990, Benazir Bhutto, accused of corruption, was dismissed from her duties by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and replaced by Nawaz Sharif.
1993, Nawaz Sharif was dismissed from his duties and Benazir Bhutto came back into power.
1997, electoral victory for Nawaz Sharif's party.
1998, after India, Pakistan commenced a series of nuclear tests.
October 1999, Nawaz Sharif was overthrown by General Pervez Musharraf, chief of the army, who declared a state of emergency.
June 2001: Pervez Musharraf became President.
1st January: New Year.
7th January 2009: Aashura (celebrated by the Shiites).
9th March 2009: birth of the Prophet.
23rd March 2009: Ashura (celebrated by the Shiites).
1st May: Labor Day.
1st May: Labour Day.
14th August: Independence Day. 22nd August: start of Ramadan.
6th-7th September: National Defence Day. Military parades. 21st September: end of Ramadan.
28th November 2009:feast of Sacrifice.
18th December 2009: Islamic New Year.
Muslim holidays depend on the lunar calendar. Therefore the dates vary every year. For a rough estimation of these dates, count eleven days down from the date it fell on the previous year.