Area : 1.7098246E7 km2
Population : 143000000 inhabitants
Russian is the official language. English is not yet widely spoken but it is nonetheless developing.
The duration of the flight is approximately 4 hours. London is 1,555 miles from Moscow. The airline companies British Airways and Aeroflot operate 3 daily flights. EasyJet also operates daily flights to Moscow.
FlyNiki, the low cost airline company founded by Niki Lauda, the former Austrian Formula One champion, will fly you to Moscow via Germany and if you book early, you'll get a cheap flight. The price includes quality service with free fresh sandwiches prepared by Demel (the imperial supplier to the Austrian court) and non-alcoholic beverages, as well as newspapers and magazines. You can also order a hot meal or a 'Gourmet Selection Box' from the cabin crew for an extra charge of between ?7 (£6) and ?14 (£12). The menu includes Austrian specialities such as Schnitzel, Spätzle and Apfelstrudel. You can take off from London Heathrow at 8:45am and arrive in Moscow at 5:50pm. The return flight leaves Moscow at 4:55pm and arrives at London Heathrow at 8:10pm. The airline works in partnership with Air Berlin and flights land at Domodedovo International Airport, some 20 miles south of Moscow. The Aeroexpress train leaves every half hour from the airport and will take you to Paveletskaya station in three quarters of an hour, where there are connections to lines 2 and 5 on the underground, just two stops from the city centre.
If leaving from Paris, French Aigle Azur and Russian Transaero Airlines operate flights from Paris Orly South Terminal to Vnukovo, half an hour from Moscow. Originally only Air France and Aeroflot were authorised to fly scheduled flights between Paris and Moscow. Aigle Azur now operates 4 flights a week and Transaero Airlines 7 flights a week.
The flight from London takes approximately 3 hours. St. Petersburg is 1,300 miles from London. In addition to British Airways and Aeroflot, several other European companies offer flights to St. Petersburg.
Air Berlin, Germany's second largest airline, operates flights from London Heathrow with a transfer or stopover in Berlin to the capital of the tsars, Russia's second largest city.
There are no direct flights from the UK. The journey takes between 15 and 40 hours depending on the stopover and its duration.
There are no direct flights from the UK. The journey takes between six and eight hours depending on the stopover (usually in Moscow) and its duration.
There are no direct flights from the UK. The journey takes around 10 hours depending on the stopover (usually in Moscow).
There are no airports serving the cities along the Volga River. To get to the region, you must travel via Moscow or St. Petersburg.
It takes around 3h 40m to fly direct to Moscow. That being said, the journey is much longer when there is a stopover.
There are many low cost flights from the UK to Moscow, which are operated by 4 airlines: British Airways, Easyjet, Aeroflot and Transaero.
It takes around 3 hours to fly direct to St. Petersburg from the UK,
although flights sometimes include a stopover. Air France, Air Berlin, Lufthansa, Rossiya Airlines and Aeroflot are among the 23 airlines that serve Pulkovo Airport.
It takes around 3 hours to fly direct to St. Petersburg from the UK, although flights sometimes include a stopover. Air France, Air Berlin, Lufthansa, Rossiya Airlines and Aeroflot are among the 23 airlines that serve Pulkovo Airport.
When flying to North Caucasus, travellers must catch a connecting flight at one of the two airports in Moscow, both of which are located approximately 800 miles away from Pyatigorsk, the district's administrative centre. A number of low-cost airline companies, including Lufthansa, Transaero, Aeroflot and Rossiya, offer reasonably priced tickets to Mineralnye Vody Airport. Lufthansa also flies to Vladikavkaz, though this involves an additional stopover in Frankfurt, while Aeroflot also offers flights to Stavropol. The journey takes around 5h 30m, including stopovers.
Flights to Northern Russia take around 8 hours with one or two stopovers, which are often in Moscow or St. Petersburg, Flights from London take around 4 hours. The airlines Aeroflot Nord and RusLine then operate connections to the northern regions, with flight times between 2 and 4 hours.
Valid passport and visa are needed. For the tourist visa, valid for three months, you must drop off a file at the consulate including your passport, three ID photos (size 3 by 4 cm), a form already filled in, dated and signed, a document from a registered insurance company covering medical and repatriation costs, a receipt from your travel agency indicating the name of the hotel you booked (with the dates of arrival and departure plus the reference number of the Russian tourist agency, in charge of the services in the country). Allow a week (two weeks for groups) for delivery.
Since February 2002, the procedure is less strict for stays of less than 72 hours. In this particular case, the visa is delivered upon arrival at the airport, at the counter where they check passports, provided you have purchased an organised trip or booked a hotel room through a Russian travel agency or through a registered hotel, at least 48 hours before the departure date.
The Muscovites are mostly Orthodox Christians. Few are from minority groups - Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Buddhist and Muslim.
The currency is the ruble (RUB), which used to consist of 100 Kopecks, though these are no longer in circulation. 1 ruble = 0.02 pound Sterling. The main credit cards (Visa, MasterCard and American Express) are accepted by most shops, hotels, restaurants, and airline companies and can be used to withdraw cash in banks and at cash machines. Travellers cheques, however, are used very little. If possible, bring cash in US dollars, preferably in small denominations and in excellent condition. There are many foreign exchange offices, so you can compare the rates to get the best deal. Avoid black market currency exchange in the street, even if they offer tempting rates, because you are likely to be ripped off. Banks are open from 9:30am to 4:00pm, Monday to Friday, while foreign exchange offices stay open until 7:00pm, even on Saturdays.
Any cash you are bringing into the country must be declared on the customs form when you arrive.
Bus, trolleybus, tramway, underground train and boats, there are many different means of public transport in Moscow. Most are cheap, the main difficulty being to find your bearings in this rather messy web. The complex network is far from easy to understand for a foreigner.
Buses - It is advisable to ask someone which line is the right one before boarding the bus. You have to buy your ticket (?off the stub') from the driver and stamp it in the machine by the window. You can also buy a pass, valid on all public transport, from the booths of the underground train.
Underground train - Fast, clean and cheap, the underground train is definitely the simplest way to travel on the condition that you have a bilingual map on you to help you decipher the station names. The train runs from 5:30 am to 1:30 am and there are peak times - in the morning around 9:00 am and in the evening around 6:00 pm. You can buy a token for each trip or use a rechargeable magnetic card, or else a monthly pass. The underground also links up avenues together and shelters many kiosks and peddlers. The decoration of the underground stations (statues, frescoes, stained-glass windows), either in the proletarian or in the Russian imperial style, is so spectacular that it is worth going down just for the visit.
Omni boats - They sail on the Moskva. The piers are spread out all along the banks. The fares are low and it is the ideal way to get a quick overview of the main tourist attractions. Some big hotels organize river cruises with dinner and show on board.
Taxis - Many official taxis (yellow) and unofficial (?tchastniks') drive around the capital city. You just have to hail one at random by raising your hand (they are available when the small green light is on, near the rear-view mirror). There are not any set fares and the vehicles are not equipped with a metre. This is why you have to negotiate the fare before leaving, knowing that they usually cost £3-6. Many private vehicles become occasional taxis, to make ends meet. It is common practise so do not hesitate to use them, their fares often being very competitive. You can call a taxi by telephone on this number: 927 00 00.
Driving - It is possible to rent a car, chauffeur-driven or not, for a very reasonable price, which varies according to the category of the car. We recommend to hire a chauffeur for comfort as well as for safety. You will find rental agencies (Avis, Hertz, Europcar, Intourtrans, Aerotour) everywhere in town and at the airport.
No particular vaccine is required, but it is recommended to be up to date with the following: typhoid, tetanus, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A and B. Visitors wishing to stay in Russia more than three months must show an HIV-negative certificate. Tap water is not recommended. Despite city water carts that clean the streets energetically every morning, the hygiene conditions are often poor, in particular in public toilets. Most medicines are available without prescription in pharmacies and at metro kiosks. In case of an emergency, contact the European medical centre (Tel: 251 60 99). Insurance covering medical and repatriation expenses is mandatory.
Russia welcomed 20.2 million visitors in 2006.
Taxes and services are usually included in hotel and restaurant prices. It is customary to leave a tip for luggage porters in hotels, waiters in restaurants and taxi drivers.
6/7 Kensington Palace Gardens
Tel: +44 207 229 2666
Fax: +44 207 229 5804
Smolenskaya Naberezhnaya 10
Moscow 12 1099
Tel: (7) (495) 956 7200
Fax: (7) (495) 956 7201
Intourist (The official agency for the organization of holidays and cruises.)
Tel: 292 44 03