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Culture Rwanda

By Amy Adejokun Amy Adejokun Section editor

Rwanda : Discover the country's culture

Read

01/2006.

2004.
2004.
2004.
2004.
2003.

Guides

East Africa - Lonely Planet.

Rwanda - Guide Bradt Publication - ed. 2002.

Music

- "Hotel Rwanda", soundtrack.
- "Medard Ntamaganya-Rwanda", by Ntamaganya.
- "Cecile Kayirebwa", by Cecile Kayirebwa.

Rwanda : Discover the country's history

Historical dates

1000 BC. Archaeological excavations give not only possible evidence of the presence of Pygmies, but also of a population originating from the basin of the Congo.
From Xc to XVc. Pastors from the North, the Tutsis, arrive in the area.
1858. The country is discovered by Europeans, who enter the territory in succession.
Year 1880. Germany annexes some African territories, including Rwanda and Burundi.
1916. Rwanda-Burundi is supervised by the League of Nations and Belgium is in charge of its administration. The country is governed by the Mwami and the Tutsi aristocracy.
1931. Deposition of the Mwami, his son Mutara III is appointed in his place.
1935. The Hutu majority request their share of power.
1956. Mwami Mutara requests the country's independence while the Hutus demand reforms first and foremost .
1959. Mwami Mutara dies. He is replaced by Kigeli V. Beginning of the civil war, of the Tutsi slaughter. The Mwami and numerous Tutsis flee the country.
1961. Proclamation of the Republic. 80% refuse monarchy through a referendum.
1962. Independence is proclaimed by Belgium. Domination of the Democratic Republican Movement (Hutu) for 10 years.
1963. Attempt of a coup by the Tutsis, which leads to a new massacre of these. In Burundi, the Tutsi government push the Hutus out of the country.
1973. Kaybanda is the new head of State. He remains so in 1983 and 88.
1990. Coup attempted by the Tutsis. France, Belgium and some countries in Central Africa react and cause it to fail.
1991. Setting of a new Constitution for a pluralist democracy. Creation of the post of Prime Minister.
1993. Invasion of the North of the country by the Rwandan Patriotic Front, from Uganda. Slaughter of the Hutus.
1994. President Habyarimona's aircraft is shot down. Slaughter of the Tutsis, over 500,000 victims. French military and Humanitarian intervention. 2 million refugees flee to Tanzania and Zaire and become victims of epidemic disease.
1995. Setting of a new government in Kigali and Rwigyema is appointed Prime Minister. Despite international pressure, power is therefore not divided in favour of the refugees' homecoming. The government starts evacuating refugee camps in view of this pressure: the Tutsi army slaughters over 100 people in Kibeho's camp. 43 NGOs are deported for denouncing the last massacre.
1997. Uganda and Zaire help Hutu refugees to leave the territory, but the Rwandan and Zairian Tutsis slaughter them.
1998. The UN report accuses the Rwandan army and Laurent Désiré Kabila's troops of acts of genocide.
2000. Bernard Makuza is appointed Prime Minister.
2002. Paul Kagame, a Tutsi, is appointed President
2003. New Constitution.
$$ The next presidential election is due to be held in 2008. $$



Rwanda : Stay up to date on the country's holidays and events

Events

January 1st:New year's day.
January 28th: Anniversary of the Republic.
April 7th: Genocide Memorial Day.
April: Easter Holidays.
May 1st: Labour Day.
July 1st: National Holiday.
July 4th:Liberation Day.
August 15th: Assumption.
November 1st: All Saints Day.
December 25th: Christmas Day.
December 26th: Boxing day (family day).